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I would like to know if it is preferable to use as or since in the following sentence:

The monitoring of Mexico’s economic growth is of interest not only to the United States, but it may also be of interest to Latin American countries, as / since they may experience similar economic growths in the future.

I'm aware that "as" and "since" are interchangeable when denoting "because", but I'm not sure if in this sentence "as" or "since" could be interpreted ambiguously also as time.

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Both "as" and "since" (or even just "because") would be equally appropriate in that sentence. It sounds like you may have been concerned about the word "since" possibly being interpreted with the meaning it has in a sentence like:

I haven't seen him since last year.

However there is no risk of "since" being ambiguous in your sentence. I'm guessing it is the fact that "in the future" also appears later in the sentence that makes you wonder if "since" could be interpreted with the time definition.

The main reason there is no ambiguity in your sentence is that (for all the cases I can think of), to have the time related definition, "since" needs to be followed by a reference to some moment or period of time in the past.

The "since" in your sentence is followed by "they may experience similar economic growths in the future", which isn't really a moment of time at all and definitely isn't a moment of time in the past, so there is no way to interpret "since" as being related to time in your sentence.

It might help to see a somewhat similar sentence where "since" is actually ambiguous:

The monitoring of Mexico’s economic growth has been of interest to Latin American countries since they experienced similar economic growth in the 1960s.

That sentence could mean either

The monitoring of Mexico’s economic growth has been of interest to Latin American countries because they experienced similar economic growth in the 1960s.

or it could mean something like

The monitoring of Mexico’s economic growth started being of interest to Latin American countries when they experienced similar economic growth in the 1960s.

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