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This comes from Romantic Poets and the Culture of Posterity By Andrew Bennett:

Let us conclude with the dignity and excellency of knowledge and learning in that whereunto man's nature doth most aspire; which is immortality or continuance; for to this tendeth generation, and raising of houses and families; to this tend buildings, foundations, and monuments; to this tendeth the desire of memory, fame, and celebration; and in effect, the strength of all other human desires'.

I find it weird that "whereunto" means the same thing as "in which" since I rarely hear "whereto" being used nowadays, and the words taken separately don't mean anything similar.

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You may carefully compare and contrast the meanings in various dictionaries and then consider if the question remains.

wiktionary.org:

(archaic or formal, interrogative) unto what; to what purpose
(archaic or formal) unto which

dictionary.com:

Archaic . whereto.

whereto:
Archaic . to what or what place or end.
to which.

mirriam-webster:

whereto

whereto:
to what place, purpose, or end
to which

Next,

Are "whereunto", "in which" and "whereto" all synonymous?

Almost. "whereunto", "to which" and "whereto" are synonymous.

I rarely hear "whereto"

It is archaic.

the words taken separately don't mean anything similar.

"to where" and "to which" don't mean anything similar? They appear a bit similar, if not exactly so.

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