I have written this phrase

The input of the DNN is the features extracted automatically by feature_extractor model, which are given to the first hidden layer, and the outputs of this layer are given to the next layer and "so on".

Is so on here informal? What should I use instead ?

  • 3
    You should say "I have written", not "I have write". Using and so on is fine and not informal. I hope those quote marks aren't in the text. Feb 16, 2019 at 14:22
  • Also, since "the features" is a plural, the sentence reads better as "The inputs of (or to) the DNN are the features…" Your version "The input of the DNN is …" is not wrong, though.
    – alephzero
    Feb 16, 2019 at 18:55

1 Answer 1


So on is not super formal, but will be found in a lot of relatively formal writing. I would not avoid it without having some specific reason to expect that it would be rejected. I've seen it in legal judgements.

So forth is a little more formal, but basically means the same thing. You might use "and likewise for each successive layer. You can also make it more formal while keeping so on by adding "for each successive layer" or similar to that formulation.

  • 2
    In a science or math context, "and similarly..." would be more usual than "and likewise..."
    – alephzero
    Feb 16, 2019 at 18:53

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