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I am wondering if the sentence below is correct:

The company transferred critical 5G technologies to one of its partners in order to make it's supply chain more efficient.

Can you also use it without an s to mean the exact same thing?

I hear both of them, so I thought they were synonymous.

The company transferred critical 5G technology to one of its partners in order to make it's supply chain more efficient.

Also, do you need to put an article before, like "the"?

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Technology can be a mass noun, or a countable noun. There is a subtle difference.

As a mass noun, it refers to technology in the abstract. "5G technology", as a mass noun phrase, refers to all technology related to 5G as one collective abstract, or (depending on context) to some unspecified element of technology related to 5G.

As a countable noun, it refers to a discrete element of technology. For example, one 5G technology might be the so-called "Massive MIMO" antennae.

In practice, these will often be interchangeable, but there is a difference in meaning.

Oh, and whether or not you need an article depends on context. In both of your examples, there's no need for an article.

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