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This, it has been argued, is probably true for purely informative advertising, where only the product or store information required to make a rational decision is provided.

I think between information and required , that/which is is omitted, is this adjectival clause comprised of only required or is it comprised of the long phrase required to make a rational decision.

They discussed for a long time what would be the best epithet to describe a beech-tree.

What is the noun clause in this sentence, is it what would be the best epithet or what would be the best epithet to describe a beech-tree.

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In your first example, the entire phrase:

where only the product or store information required to make a rational decision is divided.

is a relative clause that modifies "informative advertising". In this case the "where" helps mark it as a relative clause. "In which" could also have been used, as in this similar example:

The scientists designed a new process where / in which they could maintain efficiency but at a much lower temperature.

In your second example:

what would be the best epithet to describe a beech-tree

is a noun phrase that describes what they discussed.

  • Thank you for the answer, but is "product or store information" modified by any relative clause in the first sentence? – jammy yang Feb 21 '19 at 16:17
  • @jammyyang I'm not certain, but while "required to make a rational decision" modifies "product or store information", I think it would be classified as a participle phrase (that acts like an adjective) rather than a relative clause. – Andrew Feb 21 '19 at 16:25
  • Thanks ! In terms of how they modify the noun which precedes it , do participle phrase and relative clause have the same function and meaning ? – jammy yang Feb 22 '19 at 2:00
  • @jammyyang No, they are different parts of speech ... but I can't see that the distinction is all that important. It's not going to help you learn better English. – Andrew Feb 22 '19 at 2:05

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