Generally, organized religion is a force of stability within a culture. People who share a religion have something important in common, and although strangers are less likely to murder each other. It can also be quite divisive as well
Here, I've never seen the word used like that before. Shouldn't it be rephrased like as follows?
"~and although strangers they maybe, they are less likely~"
But said paragraph is from what was apparently written by a native speaker, so I'm not confident at all. Is that considered a good writing? And if that kind of usage is possible, could it be alright to say like "Although losers are likely to get the prizes" which conveys "Although they lost, they can still get the prizes"?