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Considering the following sentence:

The increase in diabetes prevalence and the increase in hypertension prevalence are of special concern.

I would like to know if this sentence could be written, without loss of meaning, as:

  1. The increase in diabetes and hypertension prevalence is of special concern.
  2. The increase in diabetes and hypertension prevalence are of special concern.
  3. The increases in diabetes and hypertension prevalence are of special concern.
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    #1 implies that prevalence of both diabetes and hypertension are somehow linked (which may or may not be true and/or intended, I dunno). Both the other two are "okay", and don't have that implication. I'd probably choose #3 to make the "not connected" meaning more obvious, but it's really just a stylistic choice. Use whichever sounds best to you, taking account of that "linked or not linked?" issue. Feb 23 '19 at 16:32
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Numbers 1 and 3 are grammatically correct. The subject of the sentence 2 is "increase," therefore the use of "are" is incorrect. As @FumbleFingers said in the comments, the context of sentence 1 implies that the increase in diabetes is related to the increase of hypertension, while sentence 3 makes no such implication. I would also like to point out another option:

  1. The increase in both diabetes and hypertension is of special concern.

It functions the same as sentence 1, but "both" helps to point out that diabetes and hypertension are two separate problems.

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I think that since prevalence is sooner a quality or a state and increase is a process, they should stay divided by "and", as is in your example sentence 2.

Also, as soon as both the increase in diabetes and hypertension prevalence are the issues, problems, or subjects of special concern, I'd add one of these nouns before "of special concern":

The increase in diabetes and hypertension prevalence are the subjects of special concern.

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