Correct. 'Worked up" - He's going to have the patient go through a 'medically developed procedure or process' whereby the doctor orders specific tests to be performed on the patient to see if they have cancer or not.
There's actually two phrasal verbs in this sentence; "coming off" and "worked up."
Both have multiple meanings, so you should examine both. For worked up:
MacMillan Dictionary online provides three definitions:
a. to develop a particular feeling
b. work [yourself up] - to make yourself upset, excited, or nervous [about something]
to develop something.
Assumptions: We can assume a doctor in their profession doesn't serve to upset, excite, or make a person nervous; rather, a doctor helps a person get better. Second, that a medical doctor treating cancer isn't concentrating a cure on fixing someone's feelings; but, curing a physical condition. This rules 1 a. & 1 b. out. Of all options for 'worked up' we can deduce 2. fits best.
When you look at definitions for phrasal verbs used in a sentence, identify the subject, verb, and object first. Go through a process of elimination with a reliable dictionary based definition to come to the meaning for the right one; or, simply do what you did--ask! Great job!
Ref: https://www.macmillandictionary.com/us/dictionary/american/work-up Web. 25Feb2019