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Sirius suggested once, without any real conviction, that they all go to bed, but the Weasleys' looks of disgust were answer enough.

Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix

I don't understand the grammar about "the Weasleys' looks of disgust were answer enough". Is 'answer' here a noun word, and 'enough' an adverb or a determiner? If 'answer' is a noun, why doesn't it take any articles? E.g. "the Weasleys' looks of disgust were the answer enough".

Another question: is it the same to write it as "the Weasleys' looks of disgust answered (that) enough"

Any thoughts?

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Answer enough is a common phrase in English. I won't say figure of speech, because it's not metaphorical or ungrammatical or anything - it just doesn't match patterns that are widely used otherwise.

Enough, here, is a determiner. It means sufficient, not less than is necessary. Determiners often remove the need for an article. Most determiners go before their nouns, but enough is often used after the relevant noun:

Are you man enough for her?
I have money enough for a good meal.
I'm pedant enough to go around correcting people's grammar.

These might all be rephrased:

Are you enough of a man for her?
I have enough money for a good meal.
I'm enough of a pedant to go around correcting people's grammar.

We can see that, for a mass noun, it can just go before or after. For a countable noun, however, or an always-singular noun, if it goes after the noun there's no other words, but if it goes before you need of and the appropriate article.

Thus, the example in your question can be rephrased:

...but the Weasley's looks of disgust were enough of an answer.

Now, there's the question of "enough for what?", but that's a whole other kettle of fish.

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Sirius suggested once, without any real conviction, that they all go to bed, but the Weasleys' looks of disgust were answer enough.

"Answer" belongs to the category noun, "enough" to the category determinative.

The sufficiency determinative "enough" is not permitted in pre-head modifier position. But it has the syntactic peculiarity of being able to appear as post-head modifier of nouns (as well as adjectives and adverbs), as seen in your example. The fact that no article is required is probably just a feature of this idiomatic NP.

We might more naturally paraphrase informally it as "but the Weasleys' looks were a sufficient response".

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