Both of those sentences sound awkward. From a semantic perspective, the way they are both phrased (the order doesn't matter) makes it sounds like light is travelling through glass or plastic threads in order to get to the destination of "carry information," which is bizarre and I'm sure not the intended meaning—since it's fairly meaningless.
Forgetting about the ordering of the specific words, consider the following:
Chickens can cross the road to the other side.
Rockets can travel through the atmosphere to space.
Tourists can pass through customs to another country.
Now look at the first of your sentences:
❔ Light can travel through glass or plastic thread to carry information.
(The second sentence has the same issue.)
The construction makes it sound like carry information is a destination consisting of a compound noun, rather than an activity involving a verb and a noun.
In order to prevent that puzzling interpretation, the following versions would sound much more natural:
✔ Light can travel through glass or plastic threads while carrying information.
✔ Light can carry information through glass or plastic threads.
Alternatively, you can replace carry with deliver in the following ways:
✔ Light can travel through glass or plastic threads in order to deliver information.
✔ Light can deliver information through glass or plastic threads.