The speed of the vehicle shall never exceed the safe speed set forth by the manufacturer or which may endanger the safe handling of the vehicle or safe operation of the arm as determined by the driver.

What does the bold part exactly mean? I asked the same question today: What does "as" mean in this context?

But if "as" is interpreted into "like", I'm not sure if "arm" is determined by the driver or "safe handling or safe operation" is determined by the driver. I think the latter makes sense, but I want to be sure. What is exactly determined by the driver in the sentence above?

Does the italic part mean that "if the safe speed is exceeded, safe handling of the vehicle or safe operation of the arm, which is determined by the driver, may be endangered"?


1 Answer 1


'as determined by the driver' means the driver is the deciding factor (directly or indirectly).

In the context of the whole sentence, it's basically saying the the maximum speed should be the lower of that set by the manufacturer or that decided safe by(or based on) the driver.

Another example would be a speed limit and adverse conditions - a road may be 50mph set by law, or the maximum safe speed by the driver - so if it was snowing, the driver would cap their own speed to that necessary to make them feel safe (or an automatic system would cap their speed).

  • Essentially, yes. But there is a degree of ambiguity in the exact example as cited. Perhaps the driver gets to decide what constitutes "safe operation of the arm" (in some way not directly specified in terms of speed), and the vehicle adjusts maximum speed to ensure compliance with the driver's decision. For example, maybe the driver could define "maximum permitted swing angle" for a load hanging off the arm, without having any idea exactly how that might translate into a "speed limit". Or perhaps the driver explicitly limits the speed based on his opinion of what constitutes "safe" there. Mar 11, 2019 at 15:04
  • Yes you are right - it could be the machine detects the skill of the driver and adjusts accordingly! Will update.
    – Smock
    Mar 11, 2019 at 16:01
  • Actually, there's also syntactic ambiguity as to whether the driver gets to determine the criteria for safe handling of the vehicle, as well as safe operation of the arm. I'm sure a good lawyer could argue the text means that the former of those is to be determined by some other (unspecified) party - neither the manufacturer nor the driver (specifically, perhaps, that lawyers get to decide that one! :) Mar 11, 2019 at 18:33

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