Gloves for goalkeepers restrict heat loss from the hands and cuase discomfort. To alleviate this problem, material A has been incorporated into gloves to reduce the amount of heat.

This is a excerpt from a textbook on writing. The second sentence has present perfect. But,I don't understand what effect does present perfect tense bring out in the sentence.

Practically, the incorporation already happened before mentioning of the incorporation in the text. In that sense, past simple tense seems right.

Also, assuming it is not important to provide the time the incorporation is done in the original context, I think present simple tense is okay too, just for telling the completed state of the incorporation at present.

Based on those, I carefully concluded past, present tense works in place of present perfect. Could you judge those considerations on each tense and contrast each meaning with that of present perfect?

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    The cited text doesn't make much sense to me, and it doesn't look like anything a native speaker would write. There's really nothing to choose between ...material A has been / was / is incorporated... (it's essentially a stylistic choice), but to reduce the amount of heat is a strange way of describing the purpose / effect of reducing the level of unwanted thermal insulation (and consequent "sweatiness"). Note that native speakers often refer to breathable gloves in contexts like this. Mar 19, 2019 at 13:58

1 Answer 1


In your sentence, several tenses are possible. The question is less about grammar than it is about idiom and suitability.

To say material A was incorporated..... is correct but leaves open the possibility that subsequently some other modification was made because it refers to the past.

To say material A is incorporated..... is also correct and refers to the present situation without referring back to the past.

But to say material A has been incorporated.... tells you both that a modification was made in the past and remains in force. That's to say, it covers the time from the introduction of the modification to the present.

While all three tenses are possible with only subtle nuances of difference, the present perfect is the most natural in the situation.

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