1. I have a smartphone which is made by Apple

  2. I have a smartphone which was made by Apple

  3. I have a smartphone which has been made by Apple

I am struggling with this matter. . . .

  • Hi, yoonjin, and welcome to ELL! There's plenty of us who are happy to help people learn English, but it would be easier to help you learn if we know what you think about the question - which one do you thing is right, and why? What makes you think each of them might be wrong? Just giving you the answer to this question is simple - but it would be more help to you if we help you to understand why the answer is what it is. – SamBC Mar 19 '19 at 23:20

Be careful not to confuse the functions of "which" and the relative pronoun "that." The word "which" is descriptive and should always be preceded by a comma and explain by way of an explanation or clarification.

Ex: Restrictive: "Give me the smartphone that's an Apple product" (as opposed to the one that's an Android).

Ex: Non-Restrictive / Descriptive: "Give me the smartphone, which is an Apple product by the way."

To say, "I have an Apple iPhone" is redundant as all iPhones are manufactured and designed by Apple.

Simply say, "I have an iPhone." Otherwise, try "I have an Apple device" or just say "I have a smartphone."

  • Wow thanks so much! – yoonjin kim Mar 20 '19 at 1:51
  • Your statement about which is only (mostly) stylistically true in the US. (And even there, it's not essential from a strict grammar perspective.) In the UK, which and that are used interchangeably as restrictive pronouns. Also, which can be used in ways that should not involve a comma. (Which of these smartphones is yours?) – Jason Bassford Supports Monica Mar 20 '19 at 18:21

More natural than any of those would be

  1. I have a phone by Apple

  2. I have an Apple iPhone.

  3. My smartphone is an Apple iPhone.

  4. My phone is an Apple.

In informal conversation, while perfectly grammatical, this use of "which" sounds stilted or long-winded. "made by" also seems unneeded, and can be implied with just "by" or "is an". Also, most people now just say "phone" instead of "smartphone", unless a contrast with a non-smartphone is being made, or for some other reason the speaker wants to emphasize the "smart" aspect. A "phone" is simply assumed to be a smartphone unless specified otherwise, particularly when a make is mentioned which makes this clear.

  • Thanks so so much! – yoonjin kim Mar 20 '19 at 1:52

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