Heh. There is one particular case where you could do it, but it's pretty bizarre.
If a person loses his thumb, this will have major effects on the function of the hand as a whole. Thumbs are important.
In such cases, the preferred treatment is to transplant the big toe of the appropriate foot to substitute for the missing thumb. Big toes are not nearly as important to proper functioning of a foot.
With time, the pad of the transplanted toe will shrink, and with use and therapy the toe joint will become more flexible. The result is not a perfect replacement, but it's much better than the alternative.
In this case, you could talk about having 10 fingers when one of them is (or at least started out as) a toe. You could even have two, if you're unfortunate.
Other than that, the other answers are spot on: English makes a clear distinction between fingers and toes.