2

Is there any meaningful difference between these sentences? Are they replaceable in all situations?

A man who narrated brutal videos has come out of the shadows after being captured by an American-backed militia.

VS

A man who narrated brutal videos has come out of the shadows after captured by an American-backed militia.

4

Consider:

The bench looked good after painted. No

The bench looked good after it was painted. Yes

The bench looked good after being painted. Yes

The past participle alone (here, painted) cannot complement after.

But it can complement when and once:

The bench looked good once painted. Yes

The bench looked good when painted. Yes

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