4

I came across this sentence today but am not sure if this is a reduced relative clause.

These six categories are also consistent with those used to group the multiple-choice questions included in this chapter.

Can that/which are be understood to be in the sentence?

These six categories are also consistent with those that/which are used to group the multiple-choice questions included in this chapter.

If the above sentence is correct,and since that/which represents those
can the relative clause be viewed as:

Those are used to group the multiple-choice questions included in this chapter.

1

Almost!

You've correctly identified that the first sentence contains a reduced relative clause. Fantastic!

However you've got the corresponding relative clause in your second sentence just slightly wrong. The correct relative clause is:

which are used to group the multiple-choice questions included in this chapter

The word "which" here functions as the clausal subject. Notice that the relative clause cannot stand on its own as a sentence! The clause that you wrote down:

those are used to group the multiple-choice questions included in this chapter

could stand on its own as a sentence:

These six categories are also consistent with those. Those are used to group the multiple-choice questions included in this chapter.

...and so it is an independent clause, not a relative clause. Because of this. you would need to connect it with "and" if you were using it in the same sentence.

By the way - the two example sentences in your question are both correct and interchangeable - although most styles guides would argue you should always prefer fewer words when possible - and thus use the first.

0

These six categories are also consistent with those that / which are used to group the multiple-choice questions included in this chapter.

is correct.


Those are used to group the multiple-choice questions included in this chapter.

Extracted from the context, it is still correct with a similar meaning.

  • May I ask why you didn’t put any article before “similar meaning”? – Andrew Tobilko Mar 26 '19 at 10:38
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    Yes, you may :) I work for 2 years in an environment where colleagues have difficulties communicating in English (and that is the only common language). To facilitate communication, I "simplify" my English - for the sake of communication. I am aware that I make more and more mistakes because of this, but with all attention paid, some (mistakes) get into the wild. Thank you for noticing. – virolino Mar 26 '19 at 10:41
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    I don't think the grammar that omits the 'a' is some kind of shorthand or shortcut. It's perfectly valid. Compare "The second cake has similar flavor" vs. "The second cake has a similar flavor". This has to do with the noun being count / non-count, or in this case either. It wouldn't work at all with a strictly counted noun: "The second chair has smaller leg" is totally wrong, but a non-counted noun is OK: "The second chair has prettier fabric". – BadZen Aug 31 '20 at 6:57
  • @BadZen: Your explanation actually makes sense. Thanks. I have never thought of it that way. – virolino Aug 31 '20 at 7:04

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