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Tell me please which of the following sentences is correct.

The teacher came up to Kate and said that the assignment had been done badly, because there were a lot of grammar mistakes.

The teacher came up to Kate and said that the assignment had been done badly, because there had been a lot of grammar mistakes.

The teacher came up to Kate and said that the assignment had been done badly, because there are a lot of grammar mistakes.

I think the third sentence is correct if Kate hasn't corrected the assignment, and there are still mistakes. Tell me please if I am right. As for the first and second, I am not sure.

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All three constructions are possible. Although the first using were is most common, the other two might be used in different contexts. For example:

The teacher came up to Kate and said that the assignment had been done badly, because there had been a lot of grammar mistakes that she had needed to correct.

Here there had been is fine because these mistakes were in the past; they no longer existed as they had since been corrected. On the other hand there were would fit there just as comfortably.

Alternatively, you might say:

The teacher came up to Kate and said that the assignment had been done badly, because there are a lot of grammar mistakes that still require correcting.

Because these mistakes still exist and still need attention, the present tense is valid - as you surmise.

Equally you might prefer the past tense because the mistakes were made in the past.

As so often, it comes down to preference and context rather than right and wrong.

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The first sentence is the only one that sounds right to me. The second one overuses the past perfect and the third one is certainly wrong. You cannot mix past and present tense like this. The sentence is set in the past, describing a time in the past when the teacher talked to Katie. You would use “were” because when the teacher was talking to Katie, there were mistakes. It is possible Katie has not corrected the mistakes to this day, but you would not use “are” for a sentence whose actions happened in the past.

“Had been” is not ideal because you already know that Katie made those mistakes before completing the assignment and certainly before the teacher talked to her. The simple past is sufficient when the order of past events is already understood.

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