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“What can he want it for?” thought Great Claus; so he smeared the bottom of the measure with tar, that some of whatever was put into it might stick there and remain.

Source: The Tinder Box by Hans Christian Andersen

I don't understand the boldface part grammatically.

I guess the right thing would be:

that when some of whatever was put into it, it might stick there and remain.

Could you explain about that part grammatically?

Thanks for your help in advance.

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The reason for your confusion is the conjunction "that", which is formal for "so that" or "in order that", thus expressing purpose.

In the Longman dictionary we find this definition and example:

formal in order that something may happen or someone may do something Give us strength that we may stand against them.

Therefore, the sentence in question should be understood as containing an advervial clause of purpose:

He smeared the bottom of the measure with tar, so that some of whatever was put into it might stick there and remain.

Within the clause, "some of whatever was put into it" is the subject and "might stick there and remain", the predicate.

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I would add that, aside from the "that"/"so that" issue, your parsing of the rest of the sentence is not correct. The way it should be grouped is:

...that [some of [whatever was put into it]] [might stick there and remain].

Regardless of what was put into the measure, he hoped that some of it would stick. Not that "some of whatever" would be put into it and stick.

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