Perhaps the terms you want are pro-active and reactive?
I remember a TV ad campaign from many years ago where the issue of preventative maintenance was addressed. A mechanic in a garage is addressing the audience and mentions a customer who had a loose bolt holding the muffler on his car who didn't do anything about it; eventually, the muffler fell off. The customer paid a lot more to replace his muffler than he would have had to pay to get the bolt tightened. The mechanic's final line was "You can pay me now or you can pay me later...."
That's not QUITE the same thing as the original question was asking - a loose bolt will inevitably lead to a muffler falling off whereas the work the pro-active person does in the original question will NOT necessarily prevent ANY problem - but it's in the same territory.
Hmm. Maybe instead of pro-active, a better word might be anticipatory. The anticipatory person wants to be ready for any contingency, even if the odds of that contingency happening is very slight. The reactive person doesn't want to waste a lot of time on what ifs so they just react when and if a problem does occur.