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Image quality is a factor of screen size, dot pitch, width of viewing angle, response rate, resolution, and color depth. (from New Perspective on Computer Concepts 2018, P136)

Does it mean "is determined by"? If so, why?

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When I read your sample sentence it seemed totally reasonable to me, and yes, "is a factor of" here means "is determined by". I'm pretty sure I've encountered similar usage often enough in technical documents.

However, thinking about it, the strictly correct usage would be "screen size, dot pitch, width of viewing angle, response rate, resolution, and color depth are all factors of image quality", because a factor is "an element or cause that contributes to a result" (https://www.thefreedictionary.com/factor).

I guess the strictly correct usage simply sounds clunky, so we invert the syntax, and everybody knows what we mean, so we've added a new meaning to the word factor. Yay.

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Personally, I think the problem in understanding this is that "factor" is being used incorrectly in this example.

In this sort of context, a "factor" is an element of something greater - a circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result.

If anything I would say screen size, dot pitch, width of viewing angle, response rate, resolution, and color depth are all factors that contribute to the overall image quality, not the other way around!

If you view a screen at a bad angle, it will affect the quality of the image you see. If a screen has a low resolution (the number of pixels per inch) then the image quality will be low. So I think the right word may have been chosen for the context but used incorrectly.

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