I was at first thinking inclusive or, but then I realized it's only useful in computer science and set theory and is doesn't mean at all "including more than those named", rather it means "including any combination of those named", I am thinking there might be an expression with "exclusive" or "inclusive", but I somehow doubt it. Is there any? What expression can we use to mean what I mean?

1 Answer 1


A phrase often used in these cases, especially in legal contexts (e.g. contracts), is including, but not limited to:

It means that the things named are part of something larger, and the larger thing may also have other parts. For example, the alphabet includes, but is not limited to, the letters A through E, as well as J, K, and W.

"Including but not limited to" is language typically found in contracts. It enables the contract writer to make claims later without having given all details of their description at the time the agreement was made. Sometimes the wording is "including without limitation."

(source: The Phrase Finder)

Cf. including but not limited to - explain this sentence


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