as philosophers trained in the art of dialectics are wont to remind us, sometimes quantitative changes really can lead to qualitative transformations: dial up the degree of mendacity and the amount of misinformation in circulation, and the public sphere may undergo an irreversible change for the worse. Is that what motivates worries about "fake news", whether state-sanctioned or "bottom-up" - as in the many conspiracy theories that have bubble I up in recent yeas?
"State-sanctioned" means something that the government prohibited by some rules. "Bottom-up" means a process that starts from the lowest levels of a hierarchy upward. Then what is the meaning of contrasting "state-sanctioned fake-news" and "bottom-up fake news"?