In French, the word "latineries" relates to the latin language in a pejorative way. Is there an English equivalent to this word?
English doesn't have the same relationship to Latin that French does. In English, words from Latin (often introduced via French) tend to complement Germanic words from Anglo Saxon.
So there is "bird", but the adjective "avian"; we can "begin" or "commence"; we drink "water", but make an "aqueous solution of sodium chloride". The Latin term is associated with sophisticated language, particularly scientific or intellectual language. There are also borrowings of Latin phrases, like "quid pro quo". Most of these started as expressions used by lawyers.
We sometimes call these words or phrases "Latinisms". Some authors use such words whenever they allow us to be more precise. Other authors (notably George Orwell) recommended always choosing the Anglo-Saxon over the Latin. However, the term "Latinism" is not itself pejorative. A negative sense could be suggested by saying:
...the unnecessary use of Latinisms, such as "quid pro quo"...