1

I can not see a verb of "To gulp the glass of water with such thirst" in the following sentence (Source: http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/phrase.pdf). What does the sentence mean?

To gulp the glass of water with such thirst that streams of liquid ran down his chin and wet the front of his already sweat soaked shirt.

How is the sentence reconstructed to have a subject and a verb?

Does it mean "Somebody gulp the glass of water with such thirst that streams of liquid ran down his chin and wet the front of his already sweat soaked shirt" ?

What grammars do I need to learn in order to learn how to express sentences like this without the verbs?

2

It isn't a sentence. The source you have gives it as an example of an infinitive phrase. It is an example of a particularly long and complex infinitive phrase.

The verb is "to gulp" but there is no finite verb. The whole phrase functions rather like a noun. Such long phrases need to be handled carefully, as the listener (and speaker) can get lost.

You could make it into a sentence by simply changing it to

He gulped the glass...

I.e giving it a subject and making the verb finite. I've used past tense, but other tenses are possible. Making it into a sentence changes the meaning.

You can also use this infinitive phrase in a sentence

He wanted to gulp the glass of water...

There are lots of uses of infinitive phrases in English.

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