It involved producing new or improved products with evolving marketing methods focused on core market targets.

I think which are can be understood to be between methods and focused:
..with evolving marketing methods which are focused on core market targets.

But why can't it be " methods focusing on core market segments" ?
transformed from which focus:
..with evolving marketing methods which focus on core market targets.

  • That entire sentence is a bit convoluted and confusing, regardless of the specific point of concern. I had to read it several times in order to not forget what I'd read at the start of the sentence by the time I got to the end. There are several words and short phrases that are related and seemingly unnecessary. The impression is that, in the end, it doesn't actually say anything. Commented Apr 12, 2019 at 13:27
  • @JasonBassford Thanks, I thought I can't understand the sentence well because I am not a native speaker. It makes me feel better when a native speaker points out that the sentence itself is confusing.
    – jammy yang
    Commented Apr 13, 2019 at 1:16

1 Answer 1


Short answer, "focusing on" would also be acceptable to native speakers.

Since the main verb "involved producing" is firmly in the past, it might be more natural to place the subsidiary "focused" in the past, rather than the continuous "focusing". But as you say, there is an implied "which were" (not "which are"; the action is in the past), so this is taken care of. But in this case you already have the continuous "evolving". Probably the most compelling reason to use "focused" is to avoid having the two continuous forms so close together, which sounds just a little off-key.

There is a subtle difference in meaning - "focused on" implies that the core market objectives are fixed and understood, while "focusing on" rather suggests that detailed targets, as well as the methods of reaching them were subject to change. In this case, "focused on" gives the whole sentence an air of slightly more decisive and confident action.

Be a little careful of this kind of sentence, according to its intended audience. In some quarters it might produce an adverse reaction, being perceived as "jargon" which attempts to use impressive words to try to inflate a simple action.

  • could please tell me which of the sentences is the correct one? I devoted my time in order to develop web applications focusing on performance and reliability for monitoring and managing. or I should use focused on? Commented Sep 29, 2021 at 7:36

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