# How to elegantly express that "no money was required"

I need a catchy title for my lecture which will emphasize that no goverment money were used. I came with something like this, but it is little clumsy.

Searching for "X" in "Y":a study which costed 0 €

Is there some better or more elegant way how write it? I would prefer a title which will contain "0 €".

• no money required and no money used are two different things! Apr 10, 2014 at 7:58
• For something catchy, how about this: Searching for "X" in "Y": Not a (single) euro spent! Apr 10, 2014 at 8:32
• It doesn't contain €0, but one possibility would be: Searching for "X" in "Y" at no cost. The phrase "at no cost" is a common way of expressing that no money was exchanged between two parties. If you really want €0, you can simply use the preposition for: Searching for "X" in "Y" for €0.
– J.R.
Apr 10, 2014 at 9:20
• Note that the past tense of cost in this sense have a cost of is cost. Costed is employed only with the sense project the cost of: "We costed the study at €800 and in the end spent €780." Apr 10, 2014 at 10:41

In general, money is a mass noun, so you use it as a singular: no money was required, no government money was used.

Maulik V is correct in noting that there is a difference between money used and money required, by the way. However, I think that is not a problem in this case.

To express the idea that the study did not cost money, you can say it was done for free, but since you want to include the actual costs of €0 that is not an option.

An amount in euro is usually written in the same way as an amount in dollars, by the way, with the amount following the currency sign.

You could try something along the lines of:

A study performed at a cost of €0.
A study at €0 investment
Searching for "X" in "Y": how a €0 investment yields results.

I originally wrote €0.-, but as @Steve Melnikoff noted:

[W]hile using a hyphen to indicate no cents (or no pennies, if we're using pounds) is not uncommon, it's not normally printed like that. So this should appear as "€0.00", or just "€0".

• Using a comma to mark the decimal point is not correct in English; a period should be used. Also, while using a hyphen to indicate no cents (or no pennies, if we're using pounds) is not uncommon, it's not normally printed like that. So this should appear as "€0.00", or just "€0". Apr 10, 2014 at 10:39
• I'd also suggest that the first example should be "A study performed at a cost of €0", not "the". Apr 10, 2014 at 10:40
• @SteveMelnikoff: You are right about the decimal point (and I am ashamed I made the mistake), I have included your correct advice on writing amounts without cents in my answer, and I also agree with your the - > a remark. Thanks you :) Apr 10, 2014 at 11:01
• The decimal comma is used in some English-speaking nations, for example South Africa.
– user230
Apr 10, 2014 at 11:58
• Typo: To express they idea Apr 10, 2014 at 13:10

I would focus on spending. Try something like this:

"Searching for X in Y -- without spending money"

or

"Searching for X in Y -- without spending €"