What is a good verb that describes that pain is happening suddenly and is sharp? I am not sure if there's a verb that checks these two condition, so if you can't I would like a verb that checks one or the other as a condition.
a sudden, sharp pain
a stabbing pain [adjective]
The pain struck or stabbed him like a knife or felt like a knife [verb]
a crippling pain [adjective]
The pain was crippling. The pain crippled him momentarily.
a piercing pain [adjective]
The pain pierced him like a knife
The pain coursed through him.
Pain like this is often associated with knives or other pointed instruments.
stabbing and piercing are common ways to describe it.
There are, undoubtedly, other ways to say it as well.
To add on to the other good answers ("a sharp, stabbing pain, etc.):
Pain that is sudden and of relatively short duration, or caused by a temporary injury, is called acute pain. For example, stubbing your toe, or a muscle cramp, or even something more serious like a gunshot wound, all produce acute pain (of varying degrees of severity, of course).
Pain that lasts a relatively long time, or recurs on a regular basis, is called chronic pain. For example, someone might suffer from chronic migraine headaches, or joint pain due to an old injury, or joint pain from arthritis, or many other causes of varying severity.