The warning from the European commission could lead to that country being stripped of its European rights.
(As far as l know we must use infinitive after nouns )
At least in American English, only the -ing version is natural in this particular expression.
What do you mean by after a noun?
Mary loves cake
has an inflected verb, not an infinitive, after a noun.
The sentence can be rephrased to use "to be stripped":
The warning from the European commission could lead that country to be stripped of its European rights.
I'm just an English student but I think it means the country in question could lose her European rights as a result of the European commission's warning.