I was calling you yesterday; you didn’t answer.
I called you yesterday but you didn’t answer.
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Both are grammatical, but a native speaker of US english would be far more likely to use the second form:
I called you yesterday, but you didn’t answer.
Other possible variants:
- I called you yesterday, but no one answered.
- I called you yesterday, but I didn't get an answer.
Perhaps because the activity of calling has been completed before the speaker is speaking,
"I called" is much more common than
"I was calling" is.
This Google Ngram shows that my empirical impression of frequency has a basis.