I am really confused about dangling phrases. Which sentences below are grammatically correct? I think just 1 and 4 are correct here?

1- Did you read Hamlet, which was written by William Shakespeare?

2- Did you read Hamlet, written by William Shakespeare? (Is it a dangling participle phrase?)

3- Did you read Hamlet written by William Shakespeare?

4- Do you know my brother Ben , who lives in Hong Kong.

5- Do you know my brother Ben, living in Hong Kong. (Is it a dangling participle phrase? )

6- Do you know my brother Ben living in Hong Kong.

  • None of those have dangling participles. Sentence 3 uses a restrictive clause by virtue of not using a comma; it indicates there is more than one book titled Hamlet and more than one author, and is asking you about the specific one authored by Hamlet. In sentences 4–6, my brother Ben is a restrictive clause that indicates you have at least two brothers—and that you're talking about the specific brother named Ben. In sentence 6, not only are you talking about a specific brother, but the lack of a comma after Ben indicates the other brother or brothers do not live in Hong Kong. – Jason Bassford Supports Monica Jun 1 at 23:57
  • All of those sentences are grammatical. Actually, one interpretation of living could be that you live in Hong Kong. In that interpretation, the word living could result in an ambiguous referent. But that's because of the word used, not the comma or lack thereof. And it doesn't specifically match the definition of a dangling participle, but it does produce a similar confusion. – Jason Bassford Supports Monica Jun 2 at 0:04

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