I hear this exact sentence or similar uses of "input" pretty much every day. I work in software development in a US corporate environment. In that setting, asking for "input" is by far the most common way to express this concept. Asking for "thoughts" is significantly less common, and asking for "contributions to a debate" is quite rare.
In my view, the is a slight difference of meaning: "Input" is something expected to form part of the final result, while "thoughts" or "contributions" carry no such implication. Of course, that expectation may be frustrated.
Obviously this is a fairly recent coinage, derived from "input" in a more concrete sense, and quite likely specifically in the sense used in computing, or at least strengthened by the frequent use of "input" to describe what is provided to a computer program. But that is how language changes.