1

What do you call the remaining parts of an ancient city like what you see within the picture that sometimes archeologists discover and unearth?

1- Remnants of a city
2- Remainings of a city

To me they both work, but I am sure there is a fixed term to it. Also, I wonder if there is a better choice.

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4

Cities do not have remnants. Remaining parts of something does exist in general but is not an archaeological term per se.

Remnants is a word applied to objects. Not a site.

The proper term is remains:
"Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use." [Wikipedia]

The remains of a city or archaeological remains of a city.

remains

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2

"Remains" certainly may be used, but it's common to refer to these as "ruins".

High on top of a hill overlooking Athens stands the proud remnants of four of the most well-known ruins preserved from the ancient world. The iconic Parthenon, Propylaia, Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike make up the Acropolis of ancient Athens.

[The ancient city of Delphi] was also the location where the oracle of Delphi was filled with the spirit of Apollo and asked for guidance. Today, numerous ruins from the city remain

Under the Romans, [Corinth] continued to prosper, which explains why the most interesting ruins to view here are of Roman build.

https://theculturetrip.com/europe/greece/articles/10-must-see-ancient-sites-in-greece/

Today Caesarea is a popular ancient archaeological site boasting extensive and well-preserved ruins. Its most impressive structure is the large and picturesque ancient theatre, which overlooks the deep blue ocean.

https://www.triphistoric.com/explore/articles/incredible-roman-ruins-in-israel

Perched atop an isolated rock plateau on the eastern edge of the Judaean Desert, overlooking the Dead Sea, the ancient fortress of Masada is one of the world’s most beautiful ruins.

The Haunting Beauty of Masada, Israel's Famed Ruins

and many more.

Formally, instead of "ruins", these may be referred to as "sites of archaeological interest", or something similar.

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