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1- Do you know my brother Ben, living in Hong Kong.

I created a issue about this sentece above if it has a dangling modifiers in this website some time ago.

I received an answer saying this sentence doesn't have a dangling modifiers since the participles come right after them what they are modifying.

2- As I got off the plane, he was waiting for me, holding up a scrap of cardboard with my name scribbled on it.

2'- As I got off the plane, he was waiting for me holding up a scrap of cardboard with my name scribbled on it.

In these sentences 2 and 2', the participles clearly modifiy the "he". Aside from the context and logic, can we know that the participle modifies "he". Is it possible that the participle might modifies "me" ?

3- The cat attacked the dog, snarling in dangerous defiance.

3'- The cat attacked the dog snarling in dangerous defiance.

Is it clear what the participles modifies in these sentences above- cat or dog?

  • You can never know with absolute certainty unless the syntax is specific. Likely assumptions can be made about all of these sentences—but if you want to be completely sure, then rephrase them. – Jason Bassford Supports Monica Jun 30 at 20:57

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