What do you call the furniture in front of which a speaker talks? This furniture is also found in university and allows a professor to give a presentation to the class. What do you call this furniture?
As Shin says in this answer, it is a lectern. However, in some settings, it is also informally called a "podium," though that word traditionally referred to a raised dais where speakers stood (and not the stand on which they placed their notes). While some may argue that this usage is technically incorrect, it seems to be growing increasingly common in academic and political settings, even where there is not a dais.
In a church, the term "podium" is rarely used, but the primary lectern is often referred to as the "pulpit," a term that traditionally refers to another architectural feature, the small raised box where a preacher or priest would stand to speak that provided convenient acoustics for projecting to the entire space. With the advent of microphones and digital amplification, many newer churches forgo the traditional pulpit, thus the term has shifted from referring to the box to referring to the stand that used to be in the box.