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My question is how to analyze the clauses in the following sentence:

The only thing Harry liked about his appearance was a very thin scar on his forehead that was shaped like a bolt of lightning.

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In the sentence:

The only thing Harry liked about his appearance was a very thin scar on his forehead that was shaped like a bolt of lightning.

there are two defining relative clauses:

  • (that) Harry liked

  • that was shaped like a bolt of lightning

(that) Harry liked has the only thing (about his appearance) as antecedent.

that was shaped like a bolt of lightning has a very thin scar on his forehead as antecedent.

  • A small point: in integrated relatives, the antecedents are nominals, not NPs, so determiners are omitted. – BillJ Jul 6 '19 at 8:37
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It's a pair of noun phrases, each with a relative clause and some modifiers.

[Something] was [something else]

The basic sentence:

The thing was a scar

Adding the relative clauses that modify the nouns:

The thing (that) Harry liked was a scar that was shaped like a lightning bolt

And then some modifiers:

The only thing Harry liked about his appearance was a very thin scar that was shaped like a lightning bolt.

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