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the lecturer is saying

we can already make two observations.

it seems that already is used for perfect tense, so is this expression here grammatical?

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"Already" is not only used with perfect tenses:

I already play tennis.

I already saw that film (have seen would have the same meaning)

By Monday I will already be in Japan.

When a verb phrase indicates a state, not an action, you often don't need a perfect tense. The modal verb "can" indicates a state, so it is idiomatic to say

We can already make two observations

instead of

We can already have made two observations (grammatically correct, but not a common expression)

or

I can already speak Chinese. (correct)

I can already have spoken Chinese (odd to the point of being wrong)

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