the lecturer is saying
we can already make two observations.
it seems that
already is used for perfect tense, so is this expression here grammatical?
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"Already" is not only used with perfect tenses:
I already play tennis.
I already saw that film (have seen would have the same meaning)
By Monday I will already be in Japan.
When a verb phrase indicates a state, not an action, you often don't need a perfect tense. The modal verb "can" indicates a state, so it is idiomatic to say
We can already make two observations
We can already have made two observations (grammatically correct, but not a common expression)
I can already speak Chinese. (correct)
I can already have spoken Chinese (odd to the point of being wrong)