Better is subjective, so maybe not something that can be answered outright. To whose standards are we judging?
Both sentences infer the same intent, and there is nothing outwardly wrong with either phrasing. I expect author intends the reader to be a highly-educated academic, and we can usually forgive more-complex sentence structures in texts targeting that audience.
Within your alterations, I might be inclined to swap to have with so that (for readability) and introduce can (to soften the guarantee), but those are my stylistic choices:
There are algorithms that attempt to score statements based on readability, and the one I picked at random from a Google search did not score either sentence with any discernible difference:
Finally, I identify the remaining knowledge gaps that must be overcome to achieve clinician-level performance of automated medical image processing systems.
[F/Ke: 3.8; F/Kg: 18.2; GF: 23.3; SMOG: 17.2; C/L: 19.8; ARI: 18]
Finally, I identify the remaining knowledge gaps that must be overcome to have automated medical image processing systems achieve clinician-level performance.
[F/Ke: 3.8; F/Kg: 18.2; GF: 23.3; SMOG: 17.2; C/L: 20.3; ARI: 18.5]
Finally, I identify the remaining knowledge gaps that must be overcome so that automated medical image processing systems can achieve clinician-level performance.
[F/Ke: 6.9; F/Kg: 18; GF: 23.1; SMOG: 17.2; C/L: 19.5; ARI: 18.3]
As for what any of those scores actually mean, you'd have to look them up. Typically they are algorithmic estimates of the school grade or minimum number of years' experience a person needs to have with the language, to understand that sentence properly.
(Note that the book has probably been reviewed by an editor, who does this professionally, and they did not feel the need to come up with anything better.)