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There are several cases where "the" and "that" are completely unnecessary for the understanding of a sentence. So, I want to know when they are unnecessary and why. For instance, in “She told me that she has a gun”, "that" seems to be unnecessary. By the same token, “The Coca-Cola company explains that the amount of sugar within its product is not harming the human body,” might be unnecessary.

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Firstly,"She told me she has a gun.” is wrong. Without "that" to introduce the present tense second clause,"she has a gun.", you do not define what "she told me" in the past tense first clause.

To omit "that", you would have to write the 2 clauses in the same tense, or events that happened at the same time. Either "She TOLD me she HAD a gun" or "She TELLS me she HAS a gun". Similarly, "She TELLS me she HAD a gun." is also incorrect.

Thus, "That", in this case, is used to connect 2 clauses written in different tenses.

Secondly,before I address the 2nd sentence, it this sentence is incorrect. “The Coca-Cola company explains that the amount of sugar within its product is not harming the human body,”. I think you mean either- "“The Coca-Cola company explains that the amount of sugar within its product is not HARMFUL TO the human body,” or "“The Coca-Cola company explains that the amount of sugar within its product DOES NOT HARM the human body,”.

In most cases, you would be correct to assume "The" is unnecessary. However, "The human body" is a phrasal noun that refers to human bodies in general. Therefore it is correct, unless you were to change it to "The human bodies", in which case putting "The" in front of "human bodies", an already general noun.

Hope this helped

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