I edited this question, since the original (or current one, revised by ColleenV) post has this sentence.
For instance, in “She told me that she has a gun”,
I edited this sentence to
For instance, in “She told me that she had a gun”,
because I was taught in my country, that if the main verb is the past sentence, the verbs after the "that clause" follows the same time tense of the main clause "generally" (if the verb in the main clause is the present tense, either the past tense can apply after the that-clause, or if the verb in the main clause is the past tense, either the past tense or the perfect past can apply (in this case, it is "She told me")).
But ColleenV advised me "Dude, you are not correct, has is O.K" (frankly saying).
But according to this English site (in English), the idea is same with mine too, accordingly,
Some verbs (generally those connected with reporting) can be followed by an indirect object (underlined) plus a that-clause acting as the direct object:
He told us that it would take a long time.
She convinced me I was wrong.
(as it is based on the premise that the verb "convince" is under the same category with the verb "tell", which is the reporting verb.
So, which one is correct? Is it mine or Colleen's advice?
Thank you for your tip no matter which is correct in advance.
Thank you very much for your answer typleA.
Since, excuse me, I am not a native speaker, it would take a lot of time to "discuss" this issue if I have to make a through research in English. So excuse me to quote a source in my own language.
The above site is listing the patterns when the agreement of the time sequence would not apply. And one case is listed accordingly, it says,
(2) When the case in question is still continuing even now or in case when it it is habitual. (So literally, same with your answer.)
The station master told me that the first train starts at five. He said that he rises early every morning.
However, the case in question does not need to address if the situation is still going on or what is happening now on it, you can have the verb in that-clause as the past tense.
He said that he rose early every morning.