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Is it correct to, for instance, write in a lecture:

"One must answer the court's questions with due respect in their case/if they are called upon"

I know such structure is admissible in colloquial English but I wonder if the same is applied in formal or written English, too.

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    Probably going to be dependent on the culture in the office, company, university, court, etc., you are working in. – puppetsock Jul 24 at 13:44
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It's absolutely correct.

Perhaps you could shorten your original statement a bit:

*If called upon, one must answer the court's questions with due respect. *

  • I don't see that the "in their case" adds anything, and so I'd say that this shortened form is much better. – djna Sep 30 at 7:10
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I'd very strongly commend using the shorted form suggested by user98746.

I'm not sure what is intended by this long form:

One must answer the court's questions with due respect in their case"

Who are "they"? The person answering, in the context of a case in the court? The court itself, who are entitled to respect, in their case, because of their position?

See that there are two meanings of the word "case", and hence I feel uneasy about this phrasing.

One must answer the court's questions with due respect if they are called upon"

So here "they" are the person answering. Does "if they are called upon" add anything? You would hardly answer a question unless called upon. In this case, "one" and "they" don't really match, if we start out using "one" we keep on using it

One must answer the court's questions with due respect if one is called upon"

Repeating the "one" feels ungainly: I'd suggest

One must answer the court's questions with due respect when called upon

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"One must answer the court's questions with due respect if they are called upon"

tl;dr: You sentence is grammatically correct and completely fine.

Using "one" with "their" is fine in English, written or spoken. "Their" is simply used as a gender-neutral pronoun in this case and doesn't necessarily mean "multiple people" (plural). It's not really uncommon to find this in formal writing I believe.

However, an English teacher of mine has pointed out that using a usually plural pronoun to refer to a singular object may be a bit confusing for the reader. If you're concerned about that, you can use "he/she" instead of "their". Just have to hope people don't get trigured by you not using "non-binary" pronouns. :P

Also, keep in mind that "they" has to be defined before use, meaning the "one" coming before it is important as it tells us who "they" is.

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