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While reading "the American Pageant" by Thomas A. Bailey, I came across the following text.

A sharp challenge to Puritan orthodoxy came from Anne Hutchinson. She was an exceptionally intelligent, strong-willed, and talkative woman, ultimately the mother of fourteen children.

I have checked this similar thread https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/134214/a-challenge-to-x-vs-a-challenge-for-x?rq=1 for more than 10 times.

"Challenges for food security" sounds like "food security" is some sort of entity or organization that is facing challenges......

I am still confused with the difference between "challenge to" and "challenge for". I would be eager to know whether I can use "for" instead of "to" in the text (A sharp challenge for Puritan orthodoxy).

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A sharp challenge to Puritan orthodoxy came from Anne Hutchinson.

to preposition (RECEIVING)Link C.E.D. Therefore we could write

Puritan orthodoxy received a sharp challenge from Anne Hutchinson.

For; because of or as a result of something:Link to C.E.D.

A sharp challenge for Puritan orthodoxy cannot be used because the meaning would be incorrect. When we substitute because of for For the sentence becomes

A sharp challenge because of Puritan orthodoxy

Using your example "Challenges for food security >> we can substitute because of for For which becomes

Challenges because of food security"

I don't eat meat for various reasons. >>I don't eat meat because of various reasons.Link C.E.D

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A sharp challenge to Puritan orthodoxy came from X, is from the outside, where X is seen as a whole.

A sharp challenge for Puritan orthodoxy was X, suggests the challenge is being view by those who espouse Puritan orthodoxy.

A challenge to the team = as a unit or whole A challenge for the team = the inside of the team, looked at from the inside, its members

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