I'm having a hard time wrapping my head around this. In the passive voice, we could see sentences like these:
"The car is heated."
"His spirits are lifted."
"The books are packed." vs "The concert hall is packed."
"The wall is painted."
When such sentences are not in the past, I can't figure out how to identify if the final word is an adjective, a past participle or a verb.
In sentences using the perfect tenses, I understand that we use the past participle, but is this acting as an adjective or as a verb? Eg:
"He had been broken by the news."
"They've been bored since Friday." (This I'm pretty sure is the adjective, but I'm putting it in here for completeness)
I've read in some places that we should just call it a past participle and leave it at that, but this is more confusing to me. How can it be a past participle and not act as either an adjective or a verb? Surely it must be a participle acting as a verb or an adjective?
And in a sentence like: "The speaker wants to be transferred," am I right that this final word is an adjective because it is following "to be"?
I suppose this post is just illustrating my numerous questions about this. As you can see, I have many. If there are any resources out there that someone could refer me to, or if someone could offer a detailed explanation about this usage, I would be most grateful.