Generally speaking, if you replace on with on top of and the sentence still makes sense, then using on is fine.
The use of on implies one thing resting above, and in contact with, something else. The use of in implies something inside of, or being surrounded by, another thing.
You can also replace in with somewhere in in order to make that sense more clear.
Context determines the suitability of the preposition.
For instance, both of these make sense:
- ✔ The debris landed on (top of) the ground.
- ✔ The debris landed (somewhere) in the field.
However, swapping the prepositions in the individual sentences would be strange or change the meaning:
- ？ The debris landed (somewhere) in the ground.
This implies the debris embedded itself inside the ground. Landing is an odd verb in that sense, because when you land you don't normally disturb the surface you come into contact with. If that were the intended meaning, it would likely be phrased differently:
→ The debris crashed into the ground.
- ？ The debris landed on (top of) the field.
This is fine, but it changes the interpretation of the sentence. Rather than being a single piece of debris (or small amount of debris) that lands in a field, to be surrounded by it, it's now more naturally a large amount of debris that lands on a field, covering its entire surface.
In order to explicitly illustrate these interpretations, the sentence could be rephrased in two ways:
→ The small amount of debris landed (somewhere) in the field.
→ The large amount of debris landed on (top of) the field.
Note that you can also combine the prepositions and nouns:
The debris landed on (top of) the ground (somewhere) in the field.
The first two example sentences in the question make sense, at least so long as the interpretation of place is one with which on would be appropriate.
The third sentence is a little strange, however.
？ The plane landed on (top of) New York.
This would be fine if the plane were the size of New York and, in landing, it covered the entire surface of the city. But there is no plane that large.
Therefore, there are more natural sentences (the last using a different preposition):
✔ The plane landed in New York.
✔ The plane landed on a New York building.
✔ The plane landed at the New York airport.