This is a part of a paper discussing the capability of higher organisms for perceptual recognition, generalization, recall and thinking.

Among other things the article discusses the question

  1. In what form is information stored, or remembered.

And the relevant paragraph begins as follows

With regard to the second question, two alternative positions have been maintained.

Does positions here mean some branches of a science field?

  • All, you can find the full passage as an image in the edit history of the question. Aug 4 '19 at 7:41

I am fairly sure that the second meaning from Merriam-Webster is correct here.

Position - a point of view adopted and held to.

In other words, the scientists don't agree on the answer to the second question. One camp is in favor of one explanation, the other prefers (or emphasizes) another explanation.

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