The war between Iran and Iraq lasted under a decade and caused a great deal of bloodshed.

Is this under usage equal to by, some, nearly ... etc, or throughout, through ... etc, or else none of them ?


I believe you are asking the specific meaning of "under" in the first sentence. In context, it means "less than". As used it is not very specific, so it could be 1 day less than a decade or 3 years less.

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