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Here

  1. They are related to each other being the descendants of James.
  2. They are related to each other as being the descendants of James.

In sentence no.1 "being descendant of James" is a participial phrase adding relation to two individuals, but the sentence sounds awkward to me, whereas the sentence no.2 sounds correct to my ears but I feel there is unnecessary repetition of "as" and "being"(we can use one of them).

I am no native speaker so, I could be wrong. The first one was used on family tree table or pedigree table which is a legal document.

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    Decandant is not a word. – Michael Harvey Aug 20 at 10:37
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    They are related to each other as descendants of ABC. Or: as they are etc. or since they are etc. being is not needed here and is non-idiomatic. – Lambie Aug 20 at 23:30
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    Sorry!. I missed the legal part. The answer is this for legal writing: They are related to each other, being descendants of X. That is fine in legal language. In non-legal language,it would not be used unless if were literary: Being descendants of X, their family always maintained the tradition. – Lambie Aug 21 at 14:34
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    They are related to each other, being the descendants of James. But in some old books, the comma may be missing due to handset type. – Lambie Aug 21 at 19:15
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They are related to each other, being the descendants of James.

They are related to each other as being the descendants of James.

The first sentence is absolutely grammatical.

You can use the present participle (the ing-form) to give a reason. For example: She is her father's favorite, being the youngest child = She is her father's favorite as/because she is the youngest child.

As for the second sentence, the use of "as" before being is redundant. So this sentence is not grammatical.

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