The definitions of "progress" and "progression" are very similar in the Merriam Webster Learner's Dictionary.
1 : movement forward or toward a place
2 : the process of improving or developing something over a period of time
1 : the process of developing over a period of time
2 : a continuous and connected series of actions, events, etc. :SEQUENCE
In this article about women’s career progress, the writer sometimes uses ‘career progress” and other times uses “career progression”. What is the difference between them?
Is The Workplace Culture Stalling Women's Progress
Perhaps surprisingly more senior women report greater challenges to career progress
These unconscious biases are manifested into unintentionally exclusive behaviour that can damage women’s career progression opportunities:
Double standards at the root of women’s career progression challenges.
While blame is often put on maternity leave and work-life balance issues, research shows the extent to which unconscious gender bias in UK workplace culture can hamper women's progress.