The meaning of each case is very slightly different, almost a question of emphasis.
"The results" indicates all of the results. "Results" alone indicates some of the results.
The ABC analysis indicates there is only one such analysis. Or only one was performed here. Without the word "the" it indicates a type of analysis.
So to put it together:
The results of the ABC analysis indicate that this drug is effective.
Meaning all of the results together for the single ABC analysis performed indicate the conclusion.
Results of the ABC analysis include that this drug is effective.
Meaning that some of the results of the single ABC analysis indicate the conclusion. Possibly other results of the analysis have other implications. Maybe the analysis also does things like side effects, for example.
The results of ABC analysis would indicate the level of effectiveness of this drug.
Meaning that the all the results together would indicate the effectiveness, for an analysis of that type.
Results of ABC analysis would include an indication of the level of effectiveness of this drug.
Meaning that, among the results of an analysis of the type ABC, would be the indication.