Let's start with the dictionary defintions:
Relation: the way in which two or more people or things are connected.
Relationship: the way in which two or more people or things are connected, or the state of being connected.
The "state" of the connection is something covered by "relationship" but not "relation". For example, someone may say that they do not have a relationship with their father - however, they are still related. People can be related whether they like it or not, by blood ties or family marriages; but relationships require effort and can be good or bad, strong or weak.
In your example of "Alice hates her father", this is a comment on their relationship. They will always be related.