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(https://i.stack.imgur.com/MhBHk.jpg)

We ... at the airport at six o'clock
   a arrived
   b had arrived
   c were arriving

All my English teachers have told me that I should not mention a specific time when I use the past perfect, however, yesterday my answer was qualified as incorrect. It said: We ... at the airport at six o'clock. I replied that it was a simple past sentence, being the verb "arrived". My English teacher marked me as wrong, and told me it was past perfect. Is my English teacher correct? Can you mention a specific time in the past perfect? The closest thing I found in my book was a sentence ("We had finished the tour by two o'clock") that used the perfect past and mentioned an approximate time, since it uses the word "by", which is not an exact time.

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    I don't know where your English teachers got that preposterous idea that "I should not mention a specific time when I use the past perfect". It is nonsense. – Colin Fine Oct 14 '19 at 22:45
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Actually this question is invalid, because all three of the answers could be correct, depending on the surrounding context. The mention of a specific time is not important.

We arrived at the airport at six o'clock

This is a simple declaration of fact. Without any additional information, this should be the correct answer.

A. Did you make your flight?
B. Well, we had arrived at the airport at six o'clock. This should have been plenty early to catch the plane, but there were so many people going through security that we couldn't get to the gate before the plane left.

Perfect tenses are used to relate two events to each other. Without any additional context it normally makes no sense to use the perfect tense, but nevertheless sometimes people do.

A. Did you make your flight?
B. We were (just) arriving at the airport at six o'clock when we were told it was closed due to a security emergency and all flights were cancelled.

Progressive tenses are used to express some action happening simultaneous to another action. Again, without any context this sentence would not make sense, so the simple past is more common. In addition, it's unusual to use the progressive tense with "arrive" because this is normally a discrete event. It may be more natural to say something like:

We were just about to arrive ...

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